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Who Are the Sons of Light?

Paul uses an allegorical approach when discussing the “glory of the sun and the moon,” emphasizing their distinctiveness (1 Corinthians 15:41). Jesus refers to his disciples as “sons of light,” and Paul echoes this phrase to the assembly, urging them to believe in the light and become “sons of light” (John 12:36, 1 Thessalonians 5:5).

Jesus calls his disciples sons of light and Paul repeats it to the assembly:

Like as the light you have, believe into the light, so that sons of light you may become.”

John 12:36 literal

for the whole of yourselves sons of light are, and sons of day. We are not of night nor of darkness.

1 Thessalonians 5:5 literal

The opening of thy words causes [one] to become light, [and] causes-to-discern the foolish.

Psalm 119:130 literal

The psalmist praises the enlightening power of God’s words, which bring understanding to the foolish (Psalm 119:130). In Genesis 1:16, God creates the luminaries and sets them among the heavenly ones “for signs.” These celestial bodies are later used in Joseph’s dream to symbolize family members (Genesis 37:9). Some interpret the sun, as the ruler of the day, as a representation of the “son of light.”

In Genesis, God creates two “Great Luminaries,” with the moon not classified as a luminary since it does not emit light like stars. The term “Young Luminary” is used, possibly denoting less significance, rather than size or age. It can refer to younger sons and daughters, as seen in Song of Solomon 8:8. The concept of “dominion” (memshalah) is present, signifying governance or rule.

Psalm 84:11 attributes Yahweh as a sun and a shield, bestowing favor and honor upon those walking in completeness. Psalm 136:7-9 acknowledges God as the maker of the great lights, ruling the day with the sun and the night with the moon and stars, all representing His enduring kindness.

In Malachi 4:2, the “sun of justice” rises with healing in its wings, using “her wings” instead of “its wings” or “his wings.” The phrase “spreading-out like stall-fed calves” indicates animals being fattened on plenty of food.

Perhaps the sun itself—the light to rule the Day—is a foreshadow of the son of light?

And elohim is making אֶתeternal-two Great Luminaries,[1] the Great Luminary for the dominion of the Day, and אֶתeternal-the Young Luminary[2] for the dominion[3] of the Night—and the Stars;

[1] Both luminaries are great. Note the mark of the accusative before “two” as though the Great Luminaries are doubled. The moon is not a luminary, that is, one that gives light as a star or the sun does. Thus Isaiah 13:10 reads, “the stars will not give light/praise (#1984)…the moon will not cause to shine/enlighten (#5050) his light.” The Hebrew maor (Strong’s #3974) means luminary and not sun, “Yourself has caused to erect a luminary and a sun.” (Psalm 74:16), “the luminary of Your faces” (Psalm 90:8), “a luminary of the eyes” (Prov. 15:30). The luminary of the eye, or little-man of the eye (Ps. 17:8, Prov. 7:9, Deut. 32:10) is the reflection within the pupil of the eye—look very closely in a mirror.

[2] Hebrew הַקָּטֹן֙, ha-qaton. Strong’s #6996. Small, young, insignificant, unimportant. Not necessarily denoting size but moreso age. This noun is mostly used of younger or youngest sons and daughters, i.e. “We have a little [qaton] sister…” Song of Solomon 8:8. “but ye are not so, but he who is greater among you — let him be as the younger; and he who is leading, as he who is ministering” Luke 22:26 YLT

[3] Strong’s #4475, memshalah. Noun. Dominion, realm, governance, rule. Elohim’s dominion [memshalah] is spoken of in Psalm 145:13, 103:22, 114:2. Also used in the prophets: Isa. 22:21, Mic. 4:8, Jer. 34:1, 51:28, etc.

For a sun and a shield is Yahweh elohim, favor and honor Yahweh is giving. He is not withholding good to the ones walking in completeness.  Psalm 84:11 literal

to the maker of the great lights,
for to the concealed one is his kindness,
eternalאתthe Sun to rule in the Day,
for to the concealed one is his kindness,
eternalאתthe Moon and stars to rule in the Night,
for to the concealed one is his kindness

Psalm 136:7-9 literal

And she has broken forth to yourselves a fearing one of my name, sun of justice. And health in her wings. And you have gone out, and have spread-out like stall-fed calves.

Malachi 4:2 literal