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RBT Translation:
And elohim is saying toward Father-of-Tumult, `Noble-Lady is your woman, you are not calling-out אֵת-her name Noble-Lady, for ContentiousWoman is her name.625
LITV Translation:
And God said to Abraham, You shall not call your wife Sarai by her name Sarai, for Sarah shall be her name;
ESV Translation:
And God said to Abraham, “As for Sarai your wife, you shall not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall be her name.
Brenton Septuagint Translation:
And God said to Abraham, Sarai thy wife—her name shall not be called Sarai, Sarah shall be her name.



From Noble Lady to Contentious Woman

Sarah שרה #8283 The root has several connected meanings. שָׂרָה sarah #8280 to persist, contend, exert oneself, strive as found in יִשְׂרָאֵל Isra-el, El-strives/contends. See Gen. 32:28.

This renaming is done after the narrative of her treatment of Hagar which was harsh. A Hebrew name is a reputation, fame, symbol, what one is known for. Changing from “Sara” to “Sarah” is not renaming. We have no instance in the Hebrew text of “sarah” being used for princess in the feminine singular. The word for princess (#8282) is only found in the plural sarot four times, and one time as a singular sarati #8282 שָׂרָ֙תִי֙,

How she has sat separate, the City abundant of a people! She HAS BECOME as a widow of an abundant-one in the nations, a princess [sarati] in the provinces HAS BECOME to a labor-band.” Lam. 1:1 literal

Other less-likely meanings: sharah, to let loose, set free (#8281), palm or tree standing up stiff (#8284, Fuerst), bracelet (#8285), to connect, to attach to one another firmly, weave together (unused root, cf, Fuerst), intransitive to project upward, to be prominent, to rise up, to stand high up as a palm or ship mast (unused root, cf. Fuerst), intransitive to rule, to govern, be noble (unused, cf. Fuerst), sharah #8284 fortification, fem. of wall. Unlike other instances, we are not given a reason or contextual definition for the new name. One can logically presume however that being renamed from “Noble Lady” to “Princess” or “Lady” (#8282) would contradict the point as that would not constitute a renaming. Her name changed from Noble-Lady to something else. It is my opinion that it means Contentious-Woman as this fits the context of her mocking, pretending, complaining to Abraham, humiliating and running Hagar out of the house (Gen. 16).

Good sits in an earth of wilderness, from a woman [eshet] of contentions and anger.” Proverbs 21:19 literal

In the belly, he took by the heel אֶת-his brother and in his might he has contended [sarah #8280] אֶת-Elohim.